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How does NMN help health?

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Update time : 2020-11-06 20:28:10
How does NMN help health?
 
NMN has four main types of help to health:
 
1. Material and energy metabolism
After NMN enters the body and becomes NAD+, it plays an important role in energy and material metabolism.
As far as the tricarboxylic acid cycle is concerned, it is the metabolic pathway of the human body’s three major nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids); it is also the hub of the metabolic link between sugars, lipids and amino acids; it also provides a lot of energy for the organism The energy hub of the organism.
And coenzyme I (NAD) in the mitochondria is reduced to reduced coenzyme I (NADH) by electron transfer in the TCA cycle. 1 mol of coenzyme I (NAD) can generate 3 mol of ATP, which is an important source of energy for cell life activities.
The increase in human metabolism requires enough NMN to be converted into coenzymes, which can be synthesized with other substances to play a healthy role.
 
2. Prevent age-related physical decline
Many studies have confirmed that the content of NAD+ in the human body decreases with age [1][2], and mice supplemented with NMN show weight loss, energy increase and better blood sugar control, representing that NMN re-verses the physiological effects of age. Sexual decline. The NAD+ depleting enzymes (PARP, cADPR and Sirtuins) play an important role in the biological processes of metabolism, inflammation, stress and injury responses, and play an important role in regulating the cell cycle and anti-aging.
 
According to research, the anti-aging mechanism of NMN is through the use of the following three NAD+ enzymes.
 
2.1, DNA repair enzymes
NAD+ is the synthetic substrate of ADP ribosyltransferase or ribosyl polymerase (PARP). PARP is located in the nucleus of a variety of cells. When free radicals and oxidants cause damage to the cell, the single strand of DNA will be broken and PARP will be activated.
The activated PARP uses Coenzyme I (NAD+) as a substrate to transfer the ADP ribose group to the target protein, and at the same time generates nicotinamide (Nam). These target proteins are involved in multiple functions such as DNA repair, gene expression, cell cycle progression, cell survival, chromosome reconstruction and gene stability.
 
Studies have shown that PARP has a positive effect on the treatment of cancer and plays a multifunctional role in various cancer-related processes, including DNA repair, recombination, cell proliferation or cell death.
 
Research by Dr. Sinclari of Harvard University Hospital found that supplementation of NMN repaired the damage to the DNA of mice caused by radiation, making it no different from healthy mice.
 
2.2, Cyclic ADP ribose synthetase
NAD+ is the synthetic substrate of cyclic ADP ribose synthase (cADPRsynthases) and cyclic ribose polymerase (cADP synthase). Cyclic ADP ribose synthase is composed of a pair of extracellular enzymes called lymphocyte antigens CD38 and CD157. They use NAD as a substrate to produce cyclic ADP ribose, which is the second messenger of the cell cycle and insulin.
 
2.3, Deacetylase
NAD+ is the synthetic substrate of longevity III protein lysine deacetylase Sirtuins. Sirtuins are found in mammals and are composed of 275 amino acids. There are 7 different subtypes. SIRT3-SIRT5 exist in mitochondria, SITR6 and SITR7 exist in the nucleus, and SITR1 exists in the cytoplasm.
 
Sirtuins play an important role in cell resistance, energy metabolism, apoptosis and aging, so they are called longevity proteins. SIRT1 can activate PARP-1 for efficient repair of DNA double strands, and SIRT13~5 can be used as tumor suppressors.
 
3. Improve type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is an epidemic in the current society. Studies believe that high calories and sedentary time destroy our body's natural metabolic pathways of sugar. One mechanism is that the intake of high-calorie food destroys the anabolism of NAD+. NMN supplementation can increase insulin sensitivity and improve age-induced glucose intolerance.
 
4. Prevention of neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease)
It is now widely believed that axon degeneration is the cause of neurodegenerative diseases (such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Induced multiple transcripts after neuronal injury, including NRK2 increased by more than 20-fold, which catalyzes the synthesis of NAD + to remedy the synthetic pathway to produce NAD +. Experiments have proved that by supplementing NAD+, it improves neuroprotection against traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [14], normalizes nerves and muscles, and delays memory decline. Alzheimer’s disease shows decreased NAMPT and impaired differentiation of neural stem cells. After extremely high NAMPT activity or supplementation with NAD+, it reduces the increase in β-amyloid protein content [16], through PGC-1α-mediated β-secretase (BACE1) Degrades and induces mitochondrial biosynthesis to improve Alzheimer's disease.